Less than 1 year
50+ years due to high installation and energy cost of heat pump
Possible but expensive
Approx. 18 years due to high cost of material and workmanship
50+ years due to high cost of product and workmanship
Approx. 40 years due to high cost of product
Approx. 16 years
Approx. 6 years (can be reduced by government incentives)
Abstract: Household energy consumption and carbon footprints change with household characteristics such as type of residence, energy system performance, vehicle performance, and users’ behavioural patterns. Accordingly, alternative energy technologies, such as clean electricity, hydrogen fuel cells, and energy efficient interventions, are being adopted in many parts of the world to reduce the residential, industrial, and transportation emissions. This paper presents a comprehensive research framework to identify the most desirable building retrofits and incentive schemes for Canadian households. Globally available incentive policies for low-emission vehicles and locally available retrofit options for single-family detached houses were identified during this study. A decision support tool based on life cycle thinking was developed to assess economic parameters, such as capital investment and annualized consumer cost, and environmental parameters such as greenhouse gas emissions. In order to rank and select the most desirable building retrofit, the TOPSIS ranking method was used. The linear programming graphical method was used to select the best incentive policy for low-emission vehicles. Finally, scenario analysis was used to compare different households based on regional economic and environmental characteristics. Provinces which have low-emission electricity grids such as Manitoba, British Columbia, and Quebec can primarily focus on incentives for electrified transportation. Additionally, the incentives for retrofits such as greener appliances and heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems would also significantly reduce building carbon footprint. Conventional residential buildings with fossil fuel vehicles are more desirable for provinces like Saskatchewan, Alberta, and Nova Scotia which have high-emission electricity grids. Based on the outcomes of this research, a scientific incentive planning and management approach considering regional economic and environmental characteristics was introduced.
Abstract: Green building construction is a rapidly evolving industry in Canada. The growth in sustainable buildings construction is driven by market conditions and benefits acquired during buildings operational stage. However, adoption of green practice in residential buildings is negatively impacted by the high initial investments required for green products. Financial incentives provided by the federal, provincial, and local governments may encourage residential building developers, owners and users to adopt greener construction products and technologies. In this paper, a critical regulatory review of different types of financial incentives for green residential buildings in Canada is carried out. An investigation is performed to determine the variations in local government incentives for different types of residential buildings. As a case study, different types of financial incentives available for residential buildings in the provinces of British Columbia and Ontario are compared. The findings of this study can be used to identify the regions where development of green building communities is plausible in the future. The results will also help local authorities to further develop and improve their financial incentive policies for green residential sector.
Abstract: Very high resources demand is one of major criticisms for construction industry. Furthermore, construction and demolition (C&D) waste constitutes one third of the national waste inventory. Renovation and demolishing projects generate 90% of the national C&D waste. Waste disposal is a critical issue today, especially in urban areas. Landfilling is currently the primary mode of disposal, which leads to the formation of leachate and landfill gases. Literature reveals that, the C&D waste can be turned into a resource, by producing recycled construction materials. This study compares the eco-efficiency of the use of recyclable inculcated concrete foam (ICF) blocks and recycled concrete aggregate (RCA) based concrete with conventional materials for single family detached housing (SFDH) construction. A typical Okanagan SFDH was selected as the case study. Life cycle assessment was conducted using HOT2000 and Athena Impact estimator software. Life cycle economical analysis was calculated using RSmeans database. The eco-efficiency of the use of recyclable ICF and RCA reinforced concrete is discussed. Three alternative models were used for this study on the material selection for walls. Alternative 1 used conventional wall system, Alternative 2 used conventional with ICF and RCA concrete walls, and Alternative 3 used ICF and RCA concrete wall system. The results of this study prove that conventional wall construction with ICF concrete and RCA based concrete wall systems have the highest eco-efficiency among the selected three alternatives. This research can be developed to support decision makers in planning for recycled material based residential construction in Canada.
Abstract: New residential buildings are not only larger in size but also have higher window to wall ratios which results in higher heat losses. In order to decrease the heat losses associated with glass windows, several types of window technologies have been developed. Double and triple glazed windows with argon filled coatings are two of the most common types of window systems that are being used in green residential buildings. This study assesses the effective thermal performance associated with typical double and triple pane Low-E argon filled glazing window systems. The two types of windows were tested for their thermal performance through laboratory and field testing. An experimental setup similar to Hot Box apparatus was used to measure the temperature variation of window glass panes in a controlled environment. The field values were collected from two similar residential houses present in Kelowna, BC (Canada). One house had double glazed windows and the other house had triple glazed windows. Variation in temperature profiles during three days of summer and three days of winter showed the thermal performance during these times. Laboratory measurements showed results similar to window thermal performance for winter days. The thermal performance evaluated in this study can be used to update building energy model calculations of houses and hence attain more realistic energy simulation results
Abstract: Electricity generation using solar photovoltaic (PV) can be considered as one of the key lowemission energy technologies that reduce building net operational level emissions compared to the fossil fuels-based energies. Small-scale grid-tie solar (PV) systems are being widely used in many parts of the world. These systems would be benefitted to the investors by reducing household level operational GHG emissions and securing low energy prices for long-term. Solar (PV)–based electricity generation in Canada can be improved immensely to achieve local emission targets while securing healthier energy rates for the consumers. However, there is a lack of knowledge on life cycle impacts of solar (PV)-based electricity generation in single-family detached households in Canadian regions with low-emission grid electricity. The objective of this study is to conduct an investigation to obtain the feasibility of small-scale solar (PV) systems for households in South British Columbia mountain climate region, Canada using life cycle thinking approach. The effect of domestic activities and transportation was used to identify the net energy use of the household throughout its entire life. The life cycle impact assessment and the life cycle cost assessment results were used to compare the impacts of different household alternatives. The results of this study showed that households with solar (PV) systems and electric transportation facilities indicated comparatively lower environmental impacts and higher long-term financial benefits. However, the upfront costs of households with solar systems are relatively high which may have adverse effects on the purchasing decisions. The short-term use of solar (PV) systems may result in higher cost and environmental impacts.